Naijahut agriculture future system
The world’s economies are built on agriculture, which is also essential to feeding the planet’s expanding population. Furthermore, as food demand rises, farmers must find innovative ways to boost productivity and efficiency. Consequently, agricultural technology, or Agritech, has emerged as the answer for farmers to get over a variety of operational difficulties.
In order to feed the world’s constantly expanding population, modern agriculture is essential. In addition, it encourages the development of rural economies and the production of jobs, while also assisting in the enhancement of food security. Utilising technology, sustainable farming methods, and precision agriculture leads to improved yields and better-quality produce while decreasing waste and boosting productivity. Agricultural productivity and efficiency are improved by modern tools.
Additionally, they have less of an influence on the environment and consume fewer resources like water, fertiliser, and pesticides. Utilising data and technology, farmers may use precision agricultural techniques to make more informed decisions that lead to improved crop management and cheaper expenses. Modern tools also usually demand less manual labour and are simpler to use.
Environmental implications of modern agriculture can be both favourable and unfavourable. On the one hand, it might increase water efficiency and soil health while also reducing greenhouse gas emissions. On the other hand, it could result in using chemicals excessively. Additionally, it promotes monoculture crops, which degrades the soil and reduces biodiversity.Modern agriculture must therefore be conducted sustainably and responsibly, striking a balance between productivity and environmental preservation.
TECHNOLOGICAL REVOLUTION IN MODERN AGRICULTURE
Over time, there have been many changes in the agricultural industry. While certain ancient techniques and technologies still exist, more effective, innovative, and efficient agricultural technological breakthroughs are opening up new possibilities and changing the way farming is done. This has altered the way crops are raised and has led to more effective ways to manage resources.
Technology has an unquestionable impact on agriculture today. Engineers and scientists are constantly putting in a lot of effort to create new technologies that address issues with farming, crops, and animal management. The following list of five technological developments that have a significant impact on agriculture:
Precision farming entails gathering data on crops and soil using GPS and other technical tools in order to optimise inputs (water, fertiliser, etc.) based on particular circumstances. Crop growth can be enhanced while simultaneously lowering wastage by monitoring these variables and adapting to changes in them, such as moisture levels. It aids farmers in using inputs more precisely, cutting down on waste and saving money.
One of the most popular agricultural technical developments, particularly in large-scale farming where every input counts. Precision farmers experience higher yields, better soil health, and a positive environmental impact. For instance, farmers may prevent overfertilising the field, which can be wasteful and lead to disease, by using the technology that is already available to check soil health.
To accomplish operations like precise field seeding, planting, fertilising, pesticide/herbicide spraying, and crop harvesting, robotics and other automated procedures are used. By improving productivity on farmlands, this technical innovation in agriculture has helped farmers to improve crop harvests. Drones can now be used to map crops, track agricultural growth, and enhance irrigation techniques.
In order to acquire a bird’s eye perspective of the landscape, evaluate fallow fields, or keep track on irrigation levels over a vast area, drones are also employed for aerial surveys. Drones are being used by more farmers to map their property for ideal growing seasons, crop rotation plans, and harvest requirements. Robotics have facilitated the creation of machines that can milk cows, shear sheep, and other tasks in livestock production.
Automated Irrigation Systems
The automation of irrigation systems is a great example of how technology impacts agriculture. These technologies have completely changed the way water is delivered to crops, increasing water distribution efficiency and agricultural production quality and quantity. Modern irrigation techniques efficiently deliver water when it is most needed.
Better crop yields and more effective water distribution are made possible by this accuracy. Farmers in areas with water limitations brought on by drought or climate change stand to gain the most from this agricultural technology development. The future is bright for farmers and their crops as irrigation becomes one of the main factors influencing agricultural success. Farmers who adopt this strategy may have an advantage.
Using Sensors to Monitor Crops
It is increasingly common to remotely monitor crops using sensors like drones and satellites. This enables farmers to keep an eye on their fields from the comfort of their own homes, increasing output by spotting issues earlier and enabling more effective use of water and fertiliser. Using an app or web browser, crop sensors allow farmers to remotely monitor their crops from any location in the world.
With such agricultural technical innovation, producers may reduce labour costs and boost crop yields, putting an end to the food shortage. Smallholder farmers can remotely monitor their crops using sensors in addition to large-scale farmers.
Genetically Modified Plants
One of the most important technological developments in the agriculture industry is the use of genetically modified crops. These plants have been modified to include particular qualities that will be advantageous to both farmers and consumers. For farmers raising speciality crops like fruits and flowers, they provide a wealth of advantages.
These include improved nutritional value, endurance under unfavourable climatic conditions, tolerance to herbicides, and higher resistance to pests and diseases. GMOs have dramatically decreased the amount of pesticides farmers must spray on their fields over the previous 20 years by up to 8.2% while improving crop production by 22%.
The science is crystal clear that these agricultural technological advancements are a safe and useful tool for farmers, even though they may not always be popular with consumers. Planting GMO crops also contributes to soil conservation, carbon emission reduction, and water conservation.
Datasets can be combined and analysed to find previously unknown links between different datasets as well as new discoveries that may have been overlooked. The utilisation of genomic data in agriculture is one instance of how combining datasets is put to use. The value of genomic data in agriculture is rising as scientists learn more about the genomes of different crops and livestock.
Scientists can devise novel strategies to enhance agricultural production by fusing genetic data with other types of data, such as meteorological data or soil composition. Finding answers and solutions for agricultural problems will be simpler with improved data management because information can be exchanged more easily.
Agriculture-related technological developments will keep being crucial to the future of farming. The possibility of raising agricultural productivity grows along with technological improvement. Adopting new innovations can help both large- and small-scale farmers enhance productivity and crop yield while lowering costs, streamlining management, and enhancing crop quality.
IMPACTS OF TECHNOLOGY ON MODERN AGRICULTURE
Positive Impact of Agricultural Technology
With the intensification of agriculture brought about by the Second Agricultural Revolution and the Green Revolution, agricultural productivity has considerably grown. The carrying capacity of the land has grown along with the availability of food as production has expanded. This has made it possible for the population to rise at a notable rate, especially in developing nations.
In emerging nations, the percentage of the population that is undernourished has dropped from around 35% to under 15% since 1970.3 Mechanisation and agrochemical technologies that boost productivity and yields, which can cut food costs, have had a favourable impact on agriculture. The nutritional value of various crops has grown as a result of genetic engineering, significantly reducing world undernourishment.
Genetically modified crops that can fend off pests and are more drought tolerant have been developed as a solution to environmental problems that restrict agriculture productivity. It is yet unclear how genetically modified organisms (GMOs) will affect environmental and human health. However, according to the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation, no adverse health effects or damaging gene transfers have yet happened.
Environmental Impact of Agricultural Technologies
Unfortunately, agricultural technology has an almost infinite number of harmful effects on the environment. There is no environment untouched by the effects of agricultural technologies because numerous agricultural practises send greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, which contribute to climate change. Additionally, intensive farming frequently necessitates extensive irrigation, which puts a pressure on the few freshwater resources.
Despite an increase in production, poor land management has often had a negative financial and environmental consequence. Concerning side effects of the use of agricultural fertilisers and tillage techniques are soil deterioration and loss due to erosion. As soil bacteria mineralize and repurpose minerals trapped in decaying plant matter, essential plant nutrients become available to plants. Chemical fertilisers omit this microbiological stage and deliver nutrients to plants right away, frequently in excess.
Negative Impacts of Technology on Agriculture
By ultimately removing their capacity to recycle nutrients, pesticide use lowers the diversity of soil bacteria. As a result of the widespread use of pesticides, which frequently kill pests that aren’t intended to be killed, biodiversity is further reduced in bug populations around agricultural regions. Additionally, as land is destroyed for agriculture or animal husbandry, the richness of natural plants is decreased. The outlying regions surrounding agricultural areas were then affected by disruptions in the food webs.
Agrochemicals can contaminate water sources through field runoff during rain events since they are frequently sprayed in excess. These nutrients contribute to eutrophication as they build up in rivers, lakes, and seas. The nutritional balance in aquatic environments can also be upset by waste from fish farms. Agrochemicals can produce greenhouse gases, which means they can contribute to air pollution in addition to water runoff. As nitrogen fertilisers go through the microbial process of denitrification, nitrous oxide (N2O) is a byproduct created.
One N2O molecule can trap 298 times more heat than a carbon dioxide (CO2) molecule, making it a very powerful greenhouse gas. The use of ploughs in ploughing is one land management technique that disturbs soil structure and releases carbon into the atmosphere. More carbon is currently stored in Earth’s soils than in the atmosphere, but poor soil management causes this carbon to be released again as a greenhouse gas.
DIGITAL TOOLS IN MODERN AGRICULTURE
The agricultural industry is currently undergoing a change as a result of a wide range of digital technology.
The most widely used digital technologies are listed below:
GPS Technology: With the use of GPS technology, farmers can navigate their fields with extraordinary accuracy, minimising overlap and input waste while increasing total output.
Temperature an Moisture Sensors: Farmers can optimise irrigation and other farming practises based on actual field conditions thanks to temperature and moisture sensors, which provide real-time information on field conditions.
Precision Irrigation: Utilising data and connection, precision irrigation solutions deliver the ideal amount of water at the ideal moment, enhancing crop health and water efficiency.
Machine Learning and Data Analytics: In order to analyse data from multiple sources and make wise decisions and predictions about their operations, farmers use machine learning and data analytics.
Automated Machinery: Automated equipment completes tasks precisely and reduces unavoidable human error, increasing output and improving worker safety on farms.
CONTROLLED ENVIRONMENT AGRICULTURE (CEA)
The phrase “controlled environment agriculture” (CEA) refers to a number of approaches that approach farming with technology. CEA might include everything from basic hoop houses and shade structures to complete indoor or vertical farms. The most cutting-edge systems are closed-loop, completely automated systems with regulated lighting, water, and ventilation.
Common practises like covering field-grown crops with plastic film, using nets or shade structures, and integrating fish or aquaculture with plant production in aquaponics systems are also included in CEA. Crops will grow best under CEA systems’ ideal circumstances, which also guard against pest and disease damage. Crops can be cultivated aeroponically, where roots are misted with water on a regular basis, or hydroponically, where roots are bathed in nutrient-dense water, in indoor systems with artificial lighting.
Importance of Controlled Environment
Agriculture at all scales and forms must be a part of a resilient food system. Controlled environment agriculture can be a significant component of a strong and nutrient-rich food supply around the world since climate change has the potential to disrupt conventional agricultural production and consumers are becoming more interested in niche products.
Using less water and other resources, CEA offers the potential to produce high-quality food near to consumers. Many of the fresh tomatoes, herbs, and leafy greens that we like to eat are already grown in greenhouses or other controlled environments. The industry is also seeing an increase in the availability of greens cultivated entirely indoors in enclosed systems.
In the future, CEA is probably going to be a significant complement to more conventional outdoor growing methods. The use of CEA can reduce the need for inputs like water, fertilisers, and chemicals while also lowering the risk of food-borne infections and cutting labour expenses. By utilising available space and bringing food production closer to customers, CEA systems can even be installed in urban locations that are unsuitable for traditional agriculture.
BIOTECHNOLOGY IN AGRICULTURE
Farmers now have access to technologies through biotechnology that can reduce costs and simplify management of production. For instance, some biotechnology crops can be modified to withstand particular herbicides, making weed control easier and more effective. It is possible to reduce the usage of synthetic pesticides and/or improve pest control by breeding other crops to be resistant to particular plant diseases and insect pests. These crop production alternatives can lower production costs while assisting nations in meeting food demand.
Growers have embraced a variety of biotechnology-derived crops that the USDA has deregulated and that have undergone food safety reviews by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and/or the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Additionally, genetically modified plants are being created for a process called phytoremediation, in which the plants detoxify toxins in the soil or take in and accumulate pollutants so that they may be safely harvested and disposed of.
The outcome is increased soil quality at a contaminated site in either scenario. Additionally, biotechnology can assist reduce nutrient runoff into rivers and bays, increase the efficiency with which animals utilise nutrients in feed, and help satisfy growing global food and land demands. Researchers are working to create tougher crops that will thrive in even the most extreme situations and demand less energy, labour, fertiliser, and water, reducing the pressure on land.
Using biotechnology in agriculture has benefited growers, producers, and consumers. Insect pest control and weed management have both benefited from the use of biotechnology, which also helps to protect crops from disease. For instance, the usage of persistent, artificial pesticides that could harm groundwater and the environment has been significantly reduced thanks to genetically modified insect-resistant cotton.
Herbicide-tolerant soybeans, cotton and maize make it possible to apply low-risk herbicides that degrade more quickly in soil and are safe for both people and animals, which results in better weed control. Crops that can withstand herbicides work best in no-till or low tillage farming methods that prevent soil erosion.
SOIL HEALTH MANAGEMENT
In recent years, particularly since the early 1990s, the idea of soil health or soil quality has gained favour in the farming and ranching communities, soil managers, scientists, agricultural Extension professionals, and other groups that work with soil continue to be interested in it. For many agricultural organisations engaged in regenerative and sustainable crop and livestock production as well as land management, “soil health” is a key area of concern.
Even though there is a growing understanding of soil health, it is still vital to know what it involves, how to measure it, and how to manage it for the best and most sustainable delivery of the ecosystem services that soils offer. One of the natural resources that sustains civilisation in humans is soil. It is impossible to produce enough food to feed an expanding human population without a productive and healthy soil.
The only way to regenerate degraded soils to a fruitful state is by using soil health principles. There are numerous degraded soils around the world that are no longer productive. According to global trends, 20% of cropland, 16% of forest land, 19% of grassland, and 27% of rangeland have productivity declines that are continuing.
To manage the soil for sustainable production and to increase the land’s productivity over time, a soil health evaluation is necessary. These tactics consist of:
Lessen soil disturbance in agricultural and grazing areas
Farmland crop rotation techniques
Cover cropping techniques to encourage living roots and plant diversity (farmlands)
Diversify agricultural and grazing land use systems
In agriculture and rangeland areas, add organic soil additives.
Include cattle in farmland farming systems
Foster the growth of a variety of plant species with various rooting depths (rangelands)
Rangelands with sustainable animal grazing techniques
Be patient with the process and don’t anticipate success right away (farmlands and rangelands)
businessman with arms crossed standing in a farm ( modern agriculture )
AUTOMATION AND ROBOTICS
Modern farming has been completely revolutionised by new technological advancements, including robotics, agricultural drones, and computer vision software. Today’s farmers have access to instruments that will enable them to fulfil the demands of the expanding global population.
Automated farming, which is sometimes related to “smart farming,” makes farms more effective by enhancing and automating agriculture activities and the crop or livestock production cycle.
Many agricultural technology companies are currently working on robotics innovation to create automated watering and seeding robots, robotic harvesters, autonomous tractors, and drone operations. Despite the fact that these technologies are still very new, more traditional agriculture businesses are incorporating farm automation into their operations in the agricultural industry.
Modern agriculture has benefited greatly from automation and robotics, which have helped to increase production, decrease labour costs, and improve efficiency. Several significant agricultural automation and robotics technologies are listed below:
Automated Tractors and Farm Vehicles: Autonomous tractors and farm equipment may carry out operations like planting, harvesting, and ploughing without the need for a human operator. They explore fields and optimise processes using GPS and sophisticated sensors, which eliminates the need for physical labour.
Drone Technology: For crop monitoring, mapping, and pest control, drones are outfitted with a variety of sensors and cameras. They can supply up-to-the-minute information on crop health, soil conditions, and irrigation requirements, empowering farmers to make wise choices.
Precision Agriculture: To maximise the use of resources like water, fertiliser, and pesticides, precision agriculture employs automated systems, such as GPS-guided machinery and sensors. It enables more exact and effective farming techniques.
Robotic Harvesting: Robots are being created to carry out chores like picking fruits and vegetables. These robots recognise and choose ripe food using computer vision and robotic arms, cutting labour costs and increasing harvesting effectiveness.
Weeding and Pest Control Robots: Robots for weed and pest control: Robots with cameras and artificial intelligence (AI) can recognise and get rid of weeds and pests without the need of conventional herbicides or pesticides. This lessens the impact on the environment and the demand for manual labour.
Automated Greenhouses: Automated greenhouse systems use sensors and actuators to regulate the environment’s temperature, humidity, and lighting. They enhance the conditions for plant growth, resulting in higher crop yields and higher-quality produce.
By boosting production, minimising their negative effects on the environment, and addressing the labour crisis in the sector, these technologies are revolutionising agriculture. They are a part of a larger movement towards smart farming techniques, which use data and automation to improve the efficiency and sustainability of agriculture.
EFFICIENT WATER MANAGEMENT
In order to save water resources in agriculture and ensure sustained crop production, water-efficient irrigation systems are crucial. These techniques reduce water waste and increase water use effectiveness. Here are several irrigation methods that use little water:
Drip Irrigation: Using a system of tubes, pipes, and emitters, drip irrigation feeds water directly to the root zone of plants. It minimises evaporation and runoff by supplying a precise and controlled amount of water. A wide variety of crops can be irrigated by drip irrigation, which is quite effective.
Sprinkler Irrigation: Sprinkler irrigation systems use pressurised pipes to disperse water in the form of droplets over the crops. By using this technique, water loss from evaporation and wind drift is reduced. It works well for crops grown in orchards and fields.
Subsurface Drip Irrigation: With subsurface drip irrigation, water is delivered to the root zone directly through drip lines that are buried underground. In order to lower the danger of illness, subsurface drip irrigation minimises contact between water and foliage and reduces evaporation.
Soil Moisture Sensors: Sensors for measuring soil moisture: Soil moisture sensors are used to keep track of the moisture level in the soil. These sensors can be used by farmers to decide when and how much water to apply, avoiding over-irrigation and guaranteeing that crops receive the proper amount of water.
Rainwater Harvesting: Harvesting rainwater for irrigation can help to lessen dependency on conventional water sources. During dry spells, rainwater can be collected in ponds or tanks and used to supplement irrigation.
Furrow and Basin Irrigation: Producing furrows or basins amongst rows of crops and filling them with water are two methods of irrigation. Although they are not as effective as drip or sprinkler systems, they can be controlled to use less water and are appropriate for some types of crops and soils.
Variable Rate Irrigation (VRI): Based on the unique water requirements of various crops, VRI systems use GPS and soil mapping data to deliver variable quantities of water to different sections of a field. This meticulous method maximises agricultural yield while optimising water use.
Crop Selection and Rotation: Crop selection and rotation can assist cut down on the amount of water needed by selecting drought-tolerant crop varieties and implementing crop rotation. Some crops don’t need as much irrigation since they are inherently better suited to dry environments.
Mulching: Covering the soil with mulch prevents weed development, helps the soil retain moisture, and reduces evaporation. The amount of water required for irrigation might be greatly decreased as a result.
Regulated Deficit Irrigation (RDI): RDI is a technique for improving fruit quality while reducing water use by purposefully applying less water to crops during specific growth stages, such as fruit development.
Utilising water-efficient irrigation methods improves agriculture’s sustainability and environmental friendliness by saving water while requiring less energy and fertiliser. These methods are especially crucial in areas where there is a water shortage and a drought.
Addressing Water Scarcity
It is imperative to address water scarcity for a number of compelling reasons. First of all, water is a limited and necessary resource that supports life on Earth, making it a crucial element of ecological harmony and human survival. The supply of clean, usable water is becoming more and more scarce as population density rises and industrial and agricultural needs rise. Food shortages, public health emergencies, and even societal unrest can result from failing to handle water scarcity.
It is a problem for global security since it endangers not only the safety of individuals but also the stability of entire areas. Climate change and environmental sustainability are closely related to water scarcity. The improper use of water resources causes the degeneration of ecosystems, the extinction of species, and the disruption of normal hydrological cycles. In addition, when climate change picks up speed, it makes water scarcity worse by changing precipitation patterns and making droughts and floods worse.
Therefore, tackling water scarcity is not only important for the environment but is also essential for minimising and adjusting to the larger problems brought on by a changing climate. We can protect the ecosystems of the earth and contribute to a more resilient and equitable future for everyone by putting effective water management methods, conservation efforts, and sustainable practises into practise.
CHALLENGES AND DRAWBACKS OF MODERN AGRICULTURE
Although modern agriculture has significantly increased crop yields and food production, there are a number of possible downsides as well:
Environmental Degradation: Intensive farming methods include monoculture farming, high pesticide and fertiliser use, and land clearing can cause soil erosion, degradation, and loss of fertility. Additionally, these actions degrade the regional ecosystems and contribute to water contamination.
Biodiversity Loss: By limiting the variety of plant and animal species in agricultural areas, monoculture farming and the widespread use of pesticides can have a negative influence on biodiversity. As a result, the local environment may become more vulnerable to pests and illnesses.
Water Resource Depletion: Modern agriculture uses a lot of water, which can deplete regional water supplies and cause water shortages in some areas. Ineffective irrigation techniques might waste water.
Climate Change: Through practises including deforestation, methane production from cattle, and the use of fossil fuels in farming equipment, agriculture contributes to greenhouse gas emissions. Changing weather patterns and an increase in extreme events can have a negative impact on agriculture as a result of climate change.
Soil Health: Over time, intensive farming techniques can impair the quality of the soil, resulting in lower crop yields and a greater need for fertilisers and chemicals.
Economic Disparities: Industrial agriculture on a large scale can result in the concentration of land and resources in the hands of a few number of agribusiness businesses, often to the detriment of small-scale farmers and causing economic disparities in rural areas.
Food Safety Issues: The use of antibiotics, hormones, and cramped living conditions in intensive farming practises, particularly in animal agriculture, can cause food safety issues.
Loss of Traditional Agricultural Knowledge: Modern agriculture’s emphasis on efficiency and technology can occasionally result in the loss of traditional agricultural knowledge and methods, which in some situations may be more sustainable.
Agroforestry, organic farming, and precision agriculture are just a few examples of sustainable farming methods that strive to reduce the negative effects of contemporary agriculture while maintaining high crop yields and food security. It’s crucial to remember that many of these problems may be remedied.
As a result of revolutionary trends and practises, contemporary agriculture has made notable strides in recent years. Through these improvements, crop yields have greatly increased, food security has improved, and economic growth has been aided. The complexity of modern agriculture, however, makes it clear that finding a balance between production and sustainability is crucial as we learn more about it.
The necessity for more research and the use of sustainable agricultural techniques is underscored by the potential negative effects, such as environmental deterioration, biodiversity loss, and economic inequality. The use of precision agriculture, organic farming, and effective resource management can pave the way for a more resilient and environmentally responsible future for agriculture, ensuring that it continues to meet the growing food demands of the globe while protecting the planet’s ecosystems.
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